# Section 9

Data Talk

### Table Data Talk

Project the data talk visual. Give them some time to look and make sense of it. This might take longer than in other data talks since tables are information-dense. (Slide)

Ask students:

- What do you notice about this table?
- What is it about?
- What do the rows and columns mean?
- What can you say about the data?

Does the color coding and other visuals help? How? (Slide)

Discuss

### Intro to Me & The Bees Analysis

Share with students that as they’ll see throughout the course, there are many purposes of data science. Earlier they used data to tell their own stories and to find patterns in other people’s data. Now, we are going to make sense of how data is used in business to make decisions.

Ask the class if any of them are business owners or if they know any business owners. Share with them the idea that there is no age requirement to starting and running a business. Share with them the story of Me & the Bees and have them watch the video. (Slide)

Companies like Me & the Bees will have a team in their company or an outside consulting firm analyze their data to give recommendations on how to improve their business. Let students know that they will be creating a business report for Me & the Bees. They will be given data to explore, model (find patterns within), and analyze. Finally, they will write a report to communicate their findings and describe recommendations for the company to better understand and improve their business.

Invite students to brainstorm what data a company like Me & the Bees would collect and what the purposes would be. Highlight for students, this is like the step Ask Questions from the Data Science Process. (Show Data Science Process Slide)

### Materials Required

Me & The Bees Video

Explore

### Business Report Writing Brainstorm

Let students know that before they dive into the Me and the Bees data, they will take a look at a sample business report from an analysis of recycling trends. This will help them get a sense of what might be included in a business report.

Set students up in groups to look at the business report. Give students a few minutes to read, take notes and annotate the report. Let them know that after reading they will discuss the following (Slide):

- What does this business report include?
- What are the features of the writing?

It is important to remember that this is not meant to be an exact model of what students will be writing when they write their own business report in the next sections. What is important are some of the key features of the writings. Such as: concise, clear, visuals, color, graphs and tables as supporting evidence, bullet points, headings, etc.

**Note to teacher**

### Materials Required

Sample Business Report

Explore

### Spreadsheet Exploration

Let students know that before they begin working with the data (cleaning, modeling, finding patterns, and analyzing) we want them to have an opportunity to explore the data and understand how it is organized in a spreadsheet. Understanding this visual organization will be helpful as we move later in this course into situations where we can’t see the data as we work with larger datasets in other programs like Google Colab.

Distribute the Me & The Bees sample spreadsheets to the class. Have students spend some time looking at the Me & the Bees sample spreadsheets in pairs, and answering the following questions in their journals (Slide):

- What is the spreadsheet about?
- What does each row represent?
- What about each column?
- Brainstorm some things you could learn about the Me & The Bees business from the data in the spreadsheet.
- What are some questions you still have about it?
- What are additional things about the business you want to know?

**Note to teacher**

### Materials Required

Me & The Bees Sample Sales Spreadsheet

Explore

### Cleaning the Data

Share with students that sometimes, like in this case, we have to clean the data first in order to facilitate working with it. We will be doing that here because we have multiple spreadsheets that we want to look at as a single dataset. Cleaning the data is included as part of Gathering Data in the Data Science Process.

Ask students to discuss in groups the steps they would need to take to merge the data into one spreadsheet. Create a class brainstorm. (Slide) Some examples of what students will say is to add rows so that all the months are on one page, add columns to that spreadsheet adding the temperature and city, etc. Ask them what will be important to consider as they do this. (Keeping rows and columns aligned with dates matched up so that data doesn’t end up in the wrong location.)

Before students begin, let them know that an important part of data cleaning is to keep the original data as is. Ask students why this might be the case. Students will likely highlight that we may want to go back and look at the original data in case we made a mistake or think we missed something along the way. In order to do this ask students to create a new spreadsheet where they can copy in data. This way the original data will be available to reference if needed.

In small groups, share the video about merging the data. Then have students work on merging the three months of data into a single spreadsheet and also joining this dataset with the temperature dataset for the store location. (Slide) For this project, we recommend two computers per group, so each pair of students has a computer to look at. Each member of a group should be working in the same spreadsheet as the rest of their group members (Each group has their own spreadsheet). Encourage students to share how they are doing tasks with each other as they work, to ensure that every group member understands how to work in the spreadsheet.

As you are circulating, notice if there are data moves that groups are struggling with. Encourage students to check in with all their group members before asking you questions. There is likely one person in their group that will know how to do the necessary actions in the spreadsheet such as selecting cells, copying, pasting, etc.

After students have merged the data into one spreadsheet have a discussion with the class. What kinds of moves did they use to clean the dataset? What are they helpful for? What do we have to be careful about as we do this work? (e.g. sorting in the same order when adding a column so it matches when you copy it over) Are there ways we can check that we didn’t make mistakes? (Slide)

### Materials Required

Cleaning Data in Google Sheets Video

Me & The Bees Sample Sales Spreadsheet

Discuss

### Working with a Spreadsheet to Answer Questions

Remind students that they will be writing a business report for Me and the Bees that analyzes the data and gives insight and recommendations about Lemonade sales based on the variables given. This report will reveal your findings: including visuals, analysis, and recommendations for the company on how to increase their sales.

Let students know that in this section they will be working on modeling the data (Data Science Process Visual) to find patterns using functions, filters, visuals and color coding. In groups, students are assigned one of the tasks below. Each group will present on the one assigned, to teach the rest of the class how to do it and what they learned. (Slide)

Tasks:

- Add a new column to calculate the revenue for each day. What does this new column of data tell you about the business? (Optional video tutorial on applying formulas)
- Use conditional formatting to color code a column of your choice. What insights did you gain from color coding? (Optional video tutorial on color-coding)
- Sort the data in a different order to get a new perspective on it (for example: by day of the week or temperature rather than date). What can you learn from this? (Optional video tutorial on sorting)
- Think of a question that would be answered by a subset of the data (ie. days when it rained or weekends). Filter the data to only see that subset and answer your question. (Optional video tutorial on filtering)
- Select and explore at least three of the following functions: MIN, MAX, MEAN, MEDIAN, MODE. Which columns or rows might you want to use these on? What do they tell you about the data? (Optional video tutorial on mean, median, mode)
- Make a graph comparing two variables of your choice. Does the graph tell you something beyond what looking at the table did? (Optional video tutorial on making plots)

Assign each group one of the tasks above. Set students up to work on their assigned task to figure out how to do the task, analyze what they learn from the information and then teach the class. Ask them to be prepared to explain to the class. Since some tasks are more work-intensive than others, if a group finishes with their assigned task early, encourage them to try others, or come up with their own. As students are working together, encourage them to talk with each other and explain what they are doing as they are working in the spreadsheet. If students are struggling with how to do one of their tasks, encourage them to look up the topic and see if there are any helpful tutorials to reference. Many times when we are working with new technology in this course and elsewhere we may struggle with how to do something. Searching on the internet for more information is something that data scientists do as well. This will be a valuable approach to become comfortable with throughout this course and beyond. We have optional video tutorials for working with Google Sheets. They are linked with each task above or can be found here.

Once all groups have had an opportunity to figure out how to do their task, analyze their findings, and how they will present it, have groups share with the rest of the class. Give the rest of the class time to try the task after each group has presented. Have the group walk around the class and respond to questions that come up as students are trying the task. By the end, each group should have worked on each of these tasks in their own spreadsheets.

### Materials Required

Technology Resources for Unit 1

Video Tutorial on Applying Formulas in Google Sheets

Video Tutorial on Conditional Formatting in Google Sheets

Video Tutorial on Sorting in Google Sheets

Video Tutorial on Filtering in Google Sheets

Video Tutorial on Mean, Median and Mode in Google Sheets

Video Tutorial on Making Plots in Google Sheets

Analyze

### Writing a Business Report

Share the Data Science Process visual with students. Let students know that in this process, they have been asking questions of the data, organizing data, and using visuals and functions to model the data. They have also begun to analyze their findings. They will continue the work of modeling the data, analyzing and synthesizing their findings, and finally communicating their findings in the next part of this project.

For this final activity in this project, divide groups into two pairs. Students will be working in these pairs to write a business report for Me and the Bees. Give them the activity ‘Me and the Bees Business Report’ (Handout 7, Criteria and Feedback Rubric). In this activity, students will use the tools and strategies they learned for working in a spreadsheet, continuing to look for patterns in the data. Encourage students to keep a record of their visuals and findings. Students will then write up a business report based on what they learned from the data, sharing both findings and recommendations. Note: pairs will need to make a copy of their group spreadsheet to continue their modeling in pairs.

As pairs are working, students are welcome to reach out to the other pair in their group to discuss, ask questions and share findings. Encourage students to include the features of the business report they looked at earlier in the unit: concise, clear, visuals, color, graphs as supporting evidence, bullet points, headings, etc.

### Materials Required

Handout 7: Me & The Bees Business Report

Handout 7 Criteria and Feedback Rubric

Summarize

### Portfolio

Give students an opportunity to add their work from this unit to their portfolio in Google Slides. They will add one or two slides for Unit 1 that contain links to their slides from the unit and their individual reflection on the data science process. Invite students to be creative and include visuals on the slides that capture their learning from the unit.

In addition, students can link the Concept Organizer document into their Unit 1 slides.